Thursday, May 25, 2017

The Final Cost of the Blunder

What was the final cost of Buchanan’s Blunder?
a.                  $40 million
b.                  $20 million
c.                   $10 million
d.                  $50 million
Yesterday’s answer:
C.   That the relief wagons would be there the next day
The following from the life of Elizabeth Horrocks Jackson:   My sister was the only relative I had to whom I could look for assistance in this trying ordeal, and she was sick. So severe was her affliction that she became deranged in her mind, and for several days she ate nothing but hard frozen snow. I could therefore appeal to the Lord alone—he who had promised to be a husband to the widow and a father to the fatherless. I appealed to him and he came to my aid.
   A few days after the death of my husband, the male members of the company had become reduced in number by death; and those who remained were so weak and emaciated by sickness, that on reaching the camping place at night, there were not sufficient men with strength enough to raise the poles and pitch the tents. The result was that we camped out with nothing but the vault of Heaven for a roof and the stars for companions. The snow lay several inches deep upon the ground. The night was bitterly cold. I sat down on a rock with one child in my lap and one on each side of me. In that condition I remained until morning.
   My sick sister, the first part of the night, climbed up hill to the place where some men had built a fire. She remained there until the people made down their beds and retired, to sleep, if they could. She then climbed or slid down the hill on the snow to where there was another fire which was kept alive by some persons who were watching the body of a man who had died that night. There she remained until daylight. It will be readily perceived that under such adverse circumstances I had become despondent. I was six or seven thousand miles from my native land, in a wild rocky mountain country, in a destitute condition, the ground covered with snow, the waters covered with ice, and I with three fatherless children with scarcely anything to protect them from the merciless storms.
   When I retired to bed that night, being the 27th of October, I had a stunning revelation. In my dream, my husband stood by me, and said, “Cheer up, Elizabeth, deliverance is at hand.” The dream was fulfilled, for the next day (Oct. 28, 1856) Joseph A. Young, Daniel Jones and Abel Garr galloped unexpectedly into camp, amid tears and cheers and smiles and laughter of the emigrants. These three men were the first of the most advanced Relief Company sent out from Salt Lake City to meet the belated emigrants.

Coke Newell, Latter Days (St. Martin Press, New York City: 2000), 192-193.

Wednesday, May 24, 2017

Her Husband Appeared to Her in a Vision

According to Elizabeth Jackson, one of the handcart pioneers, she sat up all night long through the biting chill of winter because the men were too weak to set up the tents. Her husband appeared to her in a vision that night and told her what?
a.                  That her and the children would soon be with him
b.                  That she and the children would make it alive to the Salt Lake Valley
c.                   That the relief wagons would be there the next day
d.                  That she would never see the valley
Yesterday’s answer:
D.   $1 million
Referring to the sugar beet experiment in Utah: It was the largest and heaviest shipment up to that time and when finally set up, two seasons after the planned time, it could produce only a low grade of molasses. All of the $32,000 raised in Europe had been spent and the Church had invested about $15,000. Creditors were pressing and the enterprise was bankrupt. At this point Brigham Young stepped in as trustee in trust and took over the enterprise as a public works of the Church, sighing, “I for one would have been glad to have had other men engaged in the manufacture of sugar from the beet, and not have troubled us with it at all, but so it is in the all-wise providence of God, and He does all things right.”
   The Church proved to be no better, and perhaps a bit worse, manager than the private investors, and although it was proved that sugar beets could be grown in Utah, it could not be show that commercial grade sugar could be manufactured in profitable quantities. The project was dropped in the fall of 1856 with a loss to private investors and the Church of about $100,000. For the next forty years the Mormons imported up to $1,000,000 worth of sugar every year, and every year they lamented their failure to produce beet sugar. In the 1890s they tried again, successfully.

Robert Mullen, The Latter-day Saints: The Mormons Yesterday and Today (New York: Doubleday, 1966), 137-138.

Tuesday, May 23, 2017

The 1856 Failure of the Sugar Beet Experiment

With the failure of the sugar beet experiment, how much money did Utah spend in importation cost of sugar for the next forty years?
a.                  $2 million
b.                  $5 million
c.                   $7 million
d.                  $1 million
Yesterday’s answer:
B.   The dedication of their new home
From the life of Isabella Gray Park:   “Like a bright star shining in the firmament, the dedication of our home will live in my memory.” So wrote Maude Kenner, daughter of Isabella Gray Park. It was the gift of a wonderful pioneer, Hamilton G. Park, to his daughter Isabella and all who dwelt therein reflected the spirit of their pioneer ancestry. My mother was a woman of great faith. She believed that every home should be dedicated. Therefore, when her home was set in order and properly prepared, as she thought it should be for such a sacred occasion, she selected a day in the lovely spring and invited about fifty of her friends to attend the dedicatory service.
   The rays of the glorious sun seemed to penetrate every nook and corner of the house, and I can see my mother now receiving her guests at the door and showing a few who whispered, “We would like to take a peek around the house.” One of these was Zina Card, and she said to Mother, “Belle, this seems like your mother’s house, and I feel like she is here today.” Happy laughter rang out through the rooms, and there was a hum of voices when friends greeted friends and enjoyed little informal chats. Then the clock struck two, conversation ceased, a reverential silence fell over the little group and the dedicatory service began.
   Beautiful hymns were sung, and a musical program was given by members of the family. Outstanding, of course, was the dedicatory prayer offered by Patriarch James R. Martineau.
   Among the many beautiful and prophetic things he said was: “This home will be protected from the elements, and no evil disposed persons will have power to enter; and also there will be many important events held there, and prominent people will come, and they will feel a good influence and be reluctant to leave.”
   His words were literally fulfilled. Not so long after, Utah experienced one of the worst storms in the history of the state. Trees were uprooted; telephone poles were blown over; the Goddess of Liberty statue was blown from the City and County Building and dashed to the ground. People prayed who had never prayed before, and it was said that some knelt in the street.
   Mother remained quietly in bed; and when we children rushed into her room, she said, “Don’t be afraid. The storm will not harm us.” And it didn’t. The next morning when we went downstairs to see what havoc the storm had wrought, the sidewalks and street were completely blockaded with poles, trees, and so on, but our premises were undisturbed. 

Daughters of Utah Pioneers, Chronicles of Courage (Salt Lake City: Utah Publishing Company, 1994), 5:253-254.

Monday, May 22, 2017

“Like a Bright Star Shining in the Firmament”

These were the words of Maude Kenner, early Salt Lake City resident. What was she referring to?
a.                  Salt Lake City
b.                  The dedication of their new home
c.                   The dedication of the Salt Lake Temple
d.                  Her marriage to her husband
Yesterday’s answer:
D.   He would baptize Kings and Queens
From the life of Matthias Foss Cowley:   On July 5, 1876, a patriarchal blessing was bestowed upon Elder Cowley by William McBride, in which it was predicted that he would soon be called into the ministry, and would “travel much for the gospels’ sake, both by sea and by land, even unto the ends of the earth.” This prediction was further corroborated in a blessing given him by Patriarch John Smith prior to Elder Cowley’s departure for his mission to the Southern States, in which blessing were also many other predictions concerning his life which have been literally fulfilled. In a meeting of the Aaronic Priesthood, held in the Fourteenth Ward of Salt Lake City, also prior to his departure for the South on a mission, Elder Cowley was blessed by Bishop Thomas Taylor, who prophesied that since he had been faithful at home, the Lord would exceedingly bless him abroad. People would have dreams of his coming, and be prepared to receive him. When set apart for his mission to Montana, Apostle Francis M. Lyman promised him that with his companion, he should have influence with prominent men whom they would meet in their travels. In Elder Cowley’s call to the Apostleship, a prophecy was fulfilled uttered by Elder John W. Taylor, in a letter written to St. Louis to the former from Kentucky, March 19, 1882, in which Elder Taylor wrote: “If you are faithful, you will yet become one of the Twelve Apostles of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in all the world.” Pres. Joseph Young, when ordaining him to the office of Seventy said; “Your name corresponds to that of an Apostle of old, and you shall perform a similar mission.” Apostle Cowley has lived to prove worthy of the fulfillment of all these predictions in his life. During his first mission, Bishop Taylor’s prediction that he should find a people prepared to receive him, was literally fulfilled. He was appointed to labor in Virginia, and it was in Tazewell, Bland and Smith counties where he found such a people, chiefly young men and women whose parents and grandparents had heard the gospel preached by Elder Jedediah M. Grant, in 1840. Some had embraced it, many others had become life-long friends, and the seeds sown by Elder Grant had borne fruits in the hearts of children and grandchildren one and two generations later. In two years, Elders Cowley and Barnett, and four other Elders, who were present only a short time of the two years, performed one hundred and fourteen baptisms in that field. Many children were blessed, and hundreds of people heard the testimony that the gospel is again restored to earth by holy angels. The promise to him by Apostle Lyman was literally fulfilled, but notably in Montana where he and his companion were received by Governor Richards with the utmost hospitality. Before their leaving Helena, the governor gave them a letter of commendation to the people of the State, affirming their sincerity and honesty. In one of those lonely nights that come to all missionaries, Elder Cowley on his first mission dreamed twice of being home before the right time. He says that the horrors which he experienced in these dreams were such as to keep him ever after constantly contended in the missionary field. It was in one of these dreams, that he met Pres. John Taylor, who said to him”: “Well, you are home, are you? You may prepare to go to Georgia now.” Here, also, a prophecy, for, strange to say, although Elder Cowley did not return until after the expiration of his mission of twenty seven months, he was soon called, as we have seen, to return to the south, and this time was appointed by Pres. John Morgan to travel with Elder John W. Taylor in Georgia.   

Andrew Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia (Salt Lake City: Publishers Press, 1901) 1:170-171.

Sunday, May 21, 2017

It Seemed to be More Blessings than one Could Realize

Which of the following listed below is not a promise given to Mathias F. Cowley?
a.                  People would be waiting for him to preach the gospel
b.                  He would serve to the ends of the earth
c.                   He would meet people of influence on his mission
d.                  He would baptize Kings and Queens
Yesterday’s answer:
C.   Green Blanket
From the lives of George Washington and Betsy Elizabeth Kroll Bradley:   Betsy always kept a supply of Indian trinkets and loose beads on hand, and after the Indian girls and squaws had done some job or piece of work for her, she would let them choose some item out of a box of articles she kept for that purpose, or else she would give them beads to work with. She would let them sit any time, sometimes all day long, on her big, long front porch or out along the banks of the rushing water of the big, new city ditch that had lately been dug just to the east of their lot. Here they would sit and sew beads on gloves, dresses, or moccasins by the hour. They would sew sinew for thread most of the time, but sometimes Betsy would give them a piece of cloth to unravel, and they used this for thread. Some days they would wash windows or carry water for a tie apron or vegetables.
   May Indians always visited the Bradley home, but among those most feared was “Green Blanket.” He rode a sorrel horse, had a dog, and always carried a long rope. Children were frightened of him. One day he lassoed one of Betsy’s granddaughters. He caught her by one arm in the loop of a rope and was pulling her toward him when Betsy rescued her. He said, “Indian come to scare kids.”
   Green Blanket caused the Saints no end of trouble. He would steal their cattle and carry off anything that was left loose. He would often come for a drink at the Bradley well after it was dug, and Betsy always made him feel that he was welcome, though the grandchildren were frightened of him.

Chronicles of Courage, Lesson Committee (Salt Lake City: Talon Printing, 1997), 8: 82.

Saturday, May 20, 2017

The Most Feared

Image result for indians
Who was considered the most feared native in Utah at the time the Saints settled the area?
a.                  Walkara
b.                  Big Foot
c.                   Green Blanket
d.                  Arapeen
Yesterday’s answer:
(A)     A dugout
From the life of William Miller:   He stopped at Garden Grove, where his wife’s father, Aaron Johnson, was presiding, and put in crops, which, however, he left for others to harvest, and continued to Council Bluffs that season, in time to cut hay and make winter quarters. But after cutting his house logs for his winter cabin, he was taken down with a severe sickness. On his recovery, he found that someone had appropriated his house logs, and, as winter was on him, he sold his only coat for a dugout in the side of the bluff, where he and his family passed the winter of 1846-47.

Andrew Jenson, L.D.S Biographical Encyclopedia (Salt Lake City: Publishers Press, 1901) Vol. 1,  484.

Friday, May 19, 2017

Trading His Only Coat

In the dead of a Winter Quarters winter, William Miller traded his only coat for what?
a.                  A dugout
b.                  Vegetables
c.                   Firewood
d.                  An original Book of Mormon
Yesterday’s answer:
(C)   George A. Smith
It was tough times early in 1849 in Great Salt Lake City. Mercantile goods were scarce and what was available was not cheap, having to be freighted from the East. For the early citizen of the Provisional State of Deseret, money was in short supply, crickets and grasshoppers had done considerable damage, crops were meager and nothing to rave about, and their Indian neighbors were becoming testy.
   All things considered, morale was a mite low and the community, such as it was, was in need of some encouragement. At a Sunday meeting in April, one of the speakers was Heber C. Kimball, a member of the First Presidency of the Church and who was, next to Brigham Young, the most powerful man in the valley. No one ever dozed when Kimball spoke; he was well known for saying things to capture an audience’s attention, for he minced no words in speaking his mind.
   Kimball in ’49 had not yet reached full stride as a pulpit-pounder, but he had a knack for making a point. Some said he was coarse and listened to him tight-lipped, but on this Sabbath he was moved to inspire those around him, to lift their spirits. They were down, they were hungry, and they barely had clothes on their backs. Matter-of-fact, almost every man in the congregation was clad in animal skins of one sort or another.
   Kimball stood, and after a few opening words came to the point: “Never mind, in less than a year there will be plenty of clothes and everything that we shall want will be sold here at less than St. Louis prices.” 
   Charles C. Rich, a fellow apostle sitting nearby, was astonished at the remark: “I don’t believe a word of it,” Rich said, in what may have been a crowd consensus. George A. Smith, also an apostle, looked up and said, “Brother Kimball, you have burst your boiler this time sure.” Kimball was somewhat startled himself. As he sat down, he muttered he was “afraid he had missed it some.”
   When the first gold seekers strode from Emigration Canyon that June morning, Heber C. Kimball’s extravagant prediction began coming true—in spades. The Mormons were about to reap a most welcome and completely unexpected harvest. Every mule in the valley suddenly increased tenfold in value. A light Yankee wagon could be traded for three or four heavy Murphy models with a yoke of oxen to boot. The Argonauts were consumed with a desire for speed. Common domestic muslin, which sold for five to ten cents a yard in St. Louis, was offered by the bolt at the same price to Mormons in trade for green vegetables. The finest in spades and shovels went for fifty cents each as the ‘49ers trimmed their baggage.
   Full chests of joiner’s tools, priced at $150 in the East, traded for $25. Smaller merchants, hoping to deal in the goldfields, switched from wagons to pack horses in Great Salt Lake City, and found it expedient to leave whatever could not easily be rolled into a bundle or tied safely onto a pack animal. . . .
. . . . Benjamin Johnson was in his field when he saw a company of Argonauts roll from Emigration Canyon. “Almost their first inquiry was for pack saddles and fresh animals in place of their jaded ones.” Johnson recalled. “I traded them a jack and a jenny and began the making of pack saddles, rigging them with rawhide. And Oh! What a change! I could get flour, bacon, sugar, rice, soap, tea power, lead, tobacco, soap, the finest clothing, with wagons and harness, in exchange for pack outfits, which I could supply in quantity.”
   Chapman Duncan started bargaining with one yoke of oxen, and by autumn had two yoke of oxen, two colts, two mules, and one horse. Gorge Morris found that after some haggling he would take two large footsore oxen, a third ox and $10 in trade for his smaller team of two oxen. Then he turned his newly acquired livestock to run loose in marshy grass for a few weeks salving their sore feet. Thus refreshed, the animals attracted other travelers who offered two yoke of oxen, $15, and a $110 wagon for Morris’ three oxen. By the end of the tourist season, Morris owned five yoke of oxen, a wagon, four cows, plus clothing, boots, shoes, bread, and groceries enough to make this family more comfortable “than we had ever been before.”
   Zadok Judd parlayed two horses and a proper reluctance into trades that brought him three yoke of cattle, a good wagon, a cook stove, a dozen shirts, a silver watch, some tools, and a half-barrel of pork.
   One gold seeker went to Benjamin Johnson’s home late on a Saturday night, insisting he could not wait until Monday, for his party was leaving at sunup. Johnson labored the night through until time for church to make up the order. The immigrant gave Johnson three sets of harness and a new wagon “with more camp outfit, clothing and goods in it than a fair price to pay four-fold for my work. When they got what they wanted, the gold seekers cared for nothing they had to leave.”

Chronicles of Courage, Lesson Committee (Salt Lake City: Talon Printing, 1996) Vol. 7, 69-71, 72.

Thursday, May 18, 2017

“Bursting the Boiler”

When apostle Heber C. Kimball prophesied that clothes on the streets of Salt Lake City would be plentiful and cheaper than St. Louis prices, a few of the other apostles did not believe him. One apostle went so far as to state that he had “burst the boiler” on this one. Who was the apostle?
a.                  Porter Rockwell
b.                  Parley P. Pratt
c.                   George A. Smith
d.                  Brigham Young
Yesterday’s answer:
(B)   1
It required no great wisdom, however, to foresee that for the saints to return to their homes (In Jackson county), and then be left there without protection—would not be far removed from community suicide, as the mob greatly outnumbered the saints. To return under these circumstances would only be laying the foundation for a greater tragedy than the one already enacted; and the brethren wisely concluded not to attempt to regain possession of their homes, until some measure was adopted to protect them when there.
   At the February term of the circuit court, which convened at Independence, about twelve of the leading elders were subpoenaed as witnesses on the part of the state, against certain citizens of Jackson county for their acts of mob violence against the “Mormons.” On the twenty-third of the month these witnesses crossed the Missouri into Jackson county, under the protection of the Liberty Blues, Captain Atchison commanding. The company numbered about fifty, and were all well-armed with United States muskets. The company and witnesses commenced crossing the river about noon, but it was nearly night before the baggage wagon was taken across. While waiting for the arrival of the wagon, it was decided to camp in the woods, and not go to Independence until the next morning. Half the company and a number of witnesses went about half a mile towards Independence and built fires for the night. While engaged in these duties the quarter-master and others, who had gone on ahead to prepare quarters in town for the company—evidently alarmed at the bold front of the mob, and believing that the guard of fifty militiamen which had been called out to protect the court and the witnesses would not be a sufficient force—sent an express back, which was continued by Captain Atchison to Colonel Allen, for the two hundred drafted militia under his command: and also sent to Liberty for more ammunition.
   Next morning the witnesses were marched to Independence under a strong guard and quartered in the block-house—formerly the Flourney Hotel. The attorney-general of the state, Mr. Wells, had been sent down by the governor to assist the circuit attorney, Mr. Reese, “to investigate as far as possible, the Jackson outrage.” These gentlemen waited upon the witnesses in their quarters, and gave them to understand that all hope of criminal procedure against the mob was at an end. Which act on the part of the officers of the court and of the state admits of but one explanation—the civil authorities were awed into inaction by the boldness, and threats of the mob; and contributing to this end was the fact that the people who had been whipped, beaten and despoiled; whose houses were burned and who were driven from the lands they had purchased from the government, were the adherents of an unpopular religion, and hence the officers of the state weakly submitted to the boldness of the mob and failed to uphold the majesty of the law.
   A few minutes after the information had been given the witnesses that all hope of criminal procedure was at an end, Captain Atchison informed them that he had received an order from Judge Ryland that the services of his company were no longer needed in Jackson county. The witnesses for the state decided to retire with the militia company and were marched out of town to the tune of “Yankee Doodle”—quick time.
   Thus ended the attempt of the state authorities to “execute the law”—in which execution the “public,” according to the governor, “was interested, but no further interested in this outrage”—only, “so far as a faithful execution of the law is concerned. “He presumed, “the whole community felt a deep interest; for that, which is the case of the Mormons today, may be the case of the Catholics tomorrow, and after them, any other sect that may become obnoxious to a majority of the people of any section of the state!”
   Thus ended the only effort that was ever made by the officers of Missouri to bring to justice these violators of the law. One class of citizens had conspired against the liberties of another class, and being the stronger had, without the authority of law, or shadow of justification, driven twelve hundred of them from their possessions, and here was not virtue enough in the executive of the state and his associates to punish the offenders. The determination of the mob to resist the law was stronger than the determination of the state officers to execute it and make it honorable. And yet the Constitution of the state made it the imperative duty of the executive to “take care that the laws are faithfully executed,” and to this end empowered the commander-in-chief of the militia (the governor) “in case of insurrection, or war, or pubic danger, or other emergency, to call forth into actual service such portion of the militia as he might deem expedient.” With this power placed in his hands by the laws of the state, Governor Dunklin permitted mobs to overawe the court of inquiry he himself had ordered.

B. H. Roberts, A Comprehensive History of the Church (Brigham Young University Press: Provo, Utah, 1965), Vol. 1, 353-355.